Anl Cancer

Anl Cancer
Created by host on 8/15/2015 5:20:44 AM



Anal Canal andPerianal Tumors

  Anal Canal and Perianal Tumors

 

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.The anus is the name for themuscular opening at the very end of the large bowel


It is controlled by a ring of muscle called a sphincter that opens and closesto control bowel movements. The area that connects the anus to the rectum iscalled the anal canal and is around 3-4cm (1-1½in) long

.Cancer of the anus is rare. Around930 people are diagnosed with anal cancer each year in the UK

The most common type of anal cancer is squamous cell carcinoma. Other rarertypes are basal cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and melanoma. This informationis about squamous cell carcinoma.

Anal cancer is slightly more commonin women than men. There are a number of factors that can increase your risk ofdeveloping anal cancer.

These include


1) Human papilloma virus (HPV)

Anal cancer is morelikely to develop in people who have had a viral infection called the humanpapilloma virus (HPV). The risk of    having HPV increases withthe number of sexual partners you have.


2) Sexualactivity

People who have analintercourse are more likely to develop anal cancer. This may be because theyare more likely to have anal HPV.

3) Lowered immunity

The immune system ispart of the body's defence against infections and illnesses like cancer.

Anal cancer is morecommon in people who have a lowered immunity, such as people taking medicinesto suppress their immune system after an organ transplant or people withconditions such as HIV.

4) Smoking

Smoking tobaccoincreases the risk of developing anal cancer.

However, many people whoget anal cancer will not have these risk factors and the cause remains unknown.

The most common symptomsof anal cancer include:

  • bleeding from the anus
  • pain, discomfort and itching around the anus
  • small lumps around the anus, which may be confused with piles  (hemorrhoids)  
  • difficulty controlling your bowels (fecal incontinence)
  • discharge of a jelly-like substance from the anus (mucus)
  • Ulcers around the anus that can spread to the skin of the buttocks.

The National Institutefor Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) recommends that people with an analcancer are treated by a specialist team. These teams aren't available in allhospitals, so you may have to travel to another hospital for your treatment.The main type of treatment for anal cancer is a combination of radiotherapy andchemotherapy. The two treatments may be given at the same time (chemoradiation)or in sequence, one treatment following the other. Combined treatment isusually very successful. If radiotherapy and chemotherapy are given at the sametime, the side effects can be more severe.


Surgery may be used to treat small anal tumours or beused in combination with chemotherapy or radiotherapy for advanced anal cancer.


Consent

Before you have anytreatment, your doctor will give you full information about what it involvesand explain its aims to you. They will usually ask you to sign a form sayingthat you give permission (consent) for the hospital staff to give you thetreatment. No medical treatment can be given without your consent.


Surgery

Surgery may be used forsmall tumors. It can also be used if your initial treatment does not completelyget rid of the cancer, or if there are signs that your cancer has returned.There are two main types of surgery: local resection and abdominoperinealresection.


   Local resection

This may be used forsmall tumors on the outside of the anus. This operation only removes the areaof the anus containing the cancer cells. The anal sphincter is not usuallyaffected, and so how their bowel works remains the same for most people.



   Abdominoperineal resection

This is the removal ofthe anus and rectum. This operation requires a permanent colostomy, whichinvolves diverting the open end of the bowel on to the surface of the abdomento allow faces to be passed out of the body into a colostomy bag. The openingon the abdominal wall is known as a stoma.


Although the idea of a colostomy is often frighteningand distressing at first, most people find that they adapt over time and canreturn to their normal activities.


You can get support and advice from the stoma nursein your hospital. Our cancer support specialists can send you information abouthaving a colostomy.

A stoma is an opening, either natural or surgically created, whichconnects a portion of the body cavity to the outside environment. Surgicalprocedures in which stomata are created are ended in the suffix -ostomy andbegin with a prefix denoting the organ or area being operated on.


In anatomy, a natural stoma is any opening in thebody, such as the mouth. Any hollow organ can be manipulated into an artificialstoma as necessary. This includes the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, ileum,colon, pleural cavity, ureters, urinary bladder, and kidney pelvis.


One well-known form of an artificial stoma is acolostomy, which is a surgically created opening in the large intestine thatallows the removal of feces out of the body, bypassing the rectum, to draininto a pouch or other collection device.

                              

                                                
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